Chodesh613 Mitzvot, Which 7th day is correct for the Shabbat?
Lunar year 2014-15, Moadim Index

    Shabbat (sabbath)
Shabbat day:
Ex. 20:8-11 “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy.  Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Shabbat of YHWH your Elohim; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you.  For in six days YHWH made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore YHWH blessed the Shabbat day and made it holy.”
Shabbat/rest from all labor: the completion of the law of purification to purge out our dead works of ignorance (leavened bread of malice and unrest).  Our true shepherd is the true Shabbat/rest for His sheep from all the works of unrest.
Yahushua is our Shabbat Master.  Matt. 12:8 “For the Son of Man is Master of the Shabbat.”  Mark 2:27 “The Shabbat was made for man, not man for the Shabbat." No man can find rest from his own self-righteous religion/kingdom for it is impurity in his heart.  Only the Shabbat is given to those who seek the law of purification in order to become the pure in their hearts and enter in His rest.”; Matt 11:28-30 “Come to Me, all who are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you rest.  Take My yoke upon you, and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart; and you shall find rest for your souls.  For My yoke is easy, and My load is light."

The lunar (Hebrew) month looks like this with reading from right to left:
     8       7        6        5        4        3        2
   15     14      13      12      11      10        9
   22     21      20      19      18      17      16
   29     28      27      26      25      24      23
      30 (when necessary)
* indicates either one- or two-day Full Moon monthly (Chodesh) observation (1 Sam. 20:5-27) since there is calculated roughly about 29.53 days [29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 2.9 seconds] in a lunar cycle.
The day of Chodesh (new month) is counted down to the Shabbat days that always fall on 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th of each lunar month.
If the New Moon day falls on Wednesday, the four successive Wednesdays would be the lunar Shabbats.
Why does man keep the sabbath days on certain days and ignore the new moon days which falls on different day like the sabbath day is from Friday evening to Saturday evening while the New Moon could be on Wednesday, for example?
How did David know in 1 Sam 20:5, that tomorrow would be a new/full moon?  Why did he continue for the observation again in verse 18?  Because he was on the 29th day (Shabbat) of previous month knowing that the next day would be the new/full moon: If the full mature moon rises first after the sun sets, then it is only one-day Chodesh observation [1st day of next month] after the 29th of previous month, but if it still rises before the sunset, then it is a two-day Chodesh observation [30th day and 1st day of next month].  That is the case with David that kept the two-day Chodesh observation.  The rising full mature moon after the sunset gives us the beginning of the new lunar month as it resets a new lunar weekly cycle within its month.  As to Eze. 46:1-3; Isa. 66:22, it is understood that the day of Chodesh cannot be in the weekly cycle, but in the monthly cycle to show that the lunar Shabbat observance is true. Likewise, with the extra month added when necessary, this has to reset to the month of Abib (1st month) after the extra month for the new yearly cycle. 
The full sun rises at the east giving us a new day so likewise the full moon rises at the east giving us a new month.
For example: if the full/new moon is estimated to rise at 8:28pm CDT (Central Daylight Time) on April 9, 2009
after the sun sets at 7:50pm, then the 1st Chodesh (Abib) would be from the sunset of April 9 to the sunset of April 10.
You can print out your own calendar: for the times to observe the full rising moon after the sunset in your local area this year (2010).
See the pdf file on the yearly lunar tablet 2014-15

The six working days, the day of Shabbat, the day of Chodesh (new month):
Eze. 46:1 Thus says YHWH Elohim, The gate of the inner court facing east shall be shut the six working days; but it shall be opened on the day of Shabbat and opened on the day of the Chodesh
In this case, it has to be the renewed lunar weekly cycle starting after the 1st day of every Chodesh (lunar month), toward the Shabbat days on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th. Every lunar month has 4 weeks of six working days and the day of  Shabbat [4x7=28; from 2nd day to 29th day of month] plus a day of Chodesh or two if necessary [1st day, 30th day (necessary)]Isa. 66:23 And it shall be from Chodesh to Chodesh and from Shabbat to Shabbat, all mankind will come to bow down before Me, says YHWH.  Amos 8:5 explains how to observe every Chodesh and its Shabbats separated from all the working days.  Isa. 66:22 tells that there are two cycles: monthly cycle and weekly cycle.  Eze. 46:1 obviously shows there are two different cycles because we know there is a weekly cycle of six working days and 7th day Shabbat.  The day of Chodesh cannot be in the weekly cycle, but in the monthly cycle!  Therefore it is a lunar month for all the Shabbat days are counted from the beginning of lunar month.  Also the gates are open for the days of feasts (moadim) in Eze.  46:9.
The Gregorian or Jewish calendar cannot follow month by month with what Eze. 46:1 and Isa. 66:23 command all of us to follow His instruction in keeping all those days that are only fit in the lunar month above!  Even the Gregorian/Jewish calendar cannot follow His instruction of counting 7 Shabbats to the day of Shavuot (Pentecost)!  Also read the Pesach article:
Bake the unleavened bread for two days on the sixth day (14th of Abib and 21st of Abib).

Why do those continue to look after the cycle from the darkness (dark moon)
to the darkness (dark moon)? 
Many observe the cresent moon (dark moon) in which is not the beginning of new lunar month at the east as YHWH has warned us not to look eastward when the sun rises: Eze. 8:16-18.  
Beware: Isa. 5:20: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; who substitute darkness for light and light for darkness.”; Isa. 1:14 “I hate your Chodesh ("dark/cresecent Moon”) festivals and your appointed feasts, they have become a burden to Me; I am weary of bearing them.”  
Are we not the children of day keeping the instructions of His Light
since He separates the day from the night? 
The 1st chapter of Genesis shows us that the morning is the beginning of the day and the evening is the end of the day.
John 11:9-10 Yahushua answered, “Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world.  But if anyone walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him.
1 Th. 5:5 for you are all sons of light and sons of day. We are not of night nor of darkness.
So why do those seek after the nightly observation of the tiny crescent moon?  Beware of those who stumble in the teachings of blindness that dominates the fleshly minds for the sake of the traditions of men.
Remember that David (1 Sam. 20:5-27) saw the full moon rising and the sunset knowing that tomorrow came to be the day of New/Full Moon, in contrary to many who do in the night locating the tiny crescent moon.

Matt. 9:16-17 But no one puts a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment;
for the patch pulls away from the garment, and a worse tear results.
Nor do people put new wine into old wineskins; otherwise the wineskins burst,
and the wine pours out and the wineskins are ruined;                                         New patch on
but they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved.                   the old moon?  
Those look at their new patch (crescent "New" moon) on the old clothing (dark moon).  Also, their new wine (rest days) are put into their old wineskin (man's month) that will burst. The bursting of the man's rest days is resulted in their own calendars, without YHWH's instructions to follow.  If we perceive that the new wine (Shabbat) are put into the new wineskin (full moon) where there is no oldness, blemish nor blackness in it, then both Shabbat and Chodesh (full Moon) are preserved!  Which lunar phase is similar as visible as the sun goes from the east to the west?   It is only the full moon (light) that goes wholly from the east to the west just like the sun goes visibly.   Likewise, if we follow His instructions wholly, we are the children of Light, just like He is the Light!   What likens those who follow the crescent moon?  Little on the instruction of His Light, but much on the instructions of man (darkness).
New Moon is meant in fullness, freshness, purity, Light, and Old Moon is in emptiness, impurity, blemish, darkness.
Many would call it the dark moon "new moon", but it is nothing of receiving any part of sunshine.   What is opposed to the full moon (all light)?  It is a dark moon (all dark).  As for the full moon, it is like to build a house fully in which we call a new house.  As for the dark moon, it is nothing to build a house, can we call it a new house?  Therefore the full moon is built fully by the sunshine (the Light builder) and it is new.  
The 7th full moon is also known as the Harvest Moon.  It is how we gather the production harvested from the beginning of the lunar month (full moon) in order to celebrate the feast of Tabernacles, which is at the dark/empty moon (15th).
2 Cor. 5:17 Therefore if anyone is in haMashiyach, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come.    We, the new things, are built together as a new house of Messiah which is come from His Kingdom of Light. We were the old things built on the old/empty/dark house of Satan which is come from his kingdom of darkness, prior to our repentance to transfer to His House of Light/newness!  Col. 1:12-13 giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified us to share in the inheritance of the servants in Light.  For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son.
Matt. 8:22 But Yahushua said to him, “Follow Me, and allow the dead to bury their own dead."  The dead buried belongs to the kingdom of darkness! We are His children of Light (purity) after His pure teachings, not after the teachings of men that will burst/fail!  He commands all to repent from the cycle/dominion of darkness to the cycle of Light.  The cycle of darkness tastes the death for all the fleshly minded!   The cycle of Light never tastes the death for all the spiritual births!    Therefore, we, the children of Light, are not in the cycle of darkness like of the womanly cycle, but are transferred to His cycle/Kingdom of Light!

His dividing Lights (Sun and Full Moon) gives us the lunar cycle to begin with:
With the understanding of Gen 1:14-18, the two greater lights (the sun and the full moon) were divided to govern the day and the night, so that the sun shone daily and the full moon shone nightly but because of the violation of His Law, the man lost his power in charge of the living creatures, the woman was bruised to begin her monthly menustration like the full moon leaks its lights and has its lunar cycle around the earth.  Prov. 8:22-29 "YHWH possessed me at the beginning of His way, before His works of old.  From everlasting I was established, from the beginning, from the earliest times of the earth..."; Ecc. 3:11; Isa. 40:21 "Do you not know?  Have you not heard ?  Has it not been declared to you from the beginning? Have you not understood from the foundations of the earth?"  His creation was at the beginning with the sun and full moon separated before He rested on the seventh day:  Both the Chodesh (Full Moon) and the Shabbat were originally established for man, but after the fall of man, we still keep His instruction going thru the lunar cycle by the Chodesh (full moon) in order to keep the Shabbats within its lunar month.
Galatians 4:10 You observe days (yamim), months (chodeshim), and appointed times (moadim), years (shanim).
To observe the rising and setting times of the sun and the full moon (two great lights) is more honest than
to follow the instructions written on the paper by men based on their beliefs!  It is referred by Genesis 1:14.

8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th days of Shabbat every lunar month:
Lev. 23:5-7 Then on the fifteenth day of the same month there is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to YHWH, for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread.  On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work.  Num. 29:12 Then on the fifteenth day of the seventh month you shall have a holy convocation; you shall do no laborious work, and you shall observe a feast to YHWH for seven days.  Esther 9:18 But the Jews who were in Susa assembled on the thirteenth and the fourteenth of the same month, and they rested on the fifteenth day and made it a day of feasting and rejoicing.
The lunar Shabbat rest days are written in the whole Scriptures as the 8th and 15th days of the lunar months are known to many.  The 15th day of 1st month for the feast of Unleavened bread, the 15th day of 7th month, the 15th day of 12th month for the feast of Purim (Esther 9:18) are known as the non-work Shabbat days every year.  Even the second Passover for those uncleaned who were not prepared for 1st Passover, yet there is a fifteenth day of 2nd month as the non-work Shabbat day, for the Passover is the 14th day prepared for the feast of Unleavened Bread.
Isa. 66:23 reminds all of us that the weekly cycle (six working days and 7th day Shabbat [Eze. 46:1-3]) is reset by the monthly cycle (head of moon), in which we, the spiritual minded (keepers of His instructions), dwell restfully in the eternal Kingdom/cycle of His Light/Chodesh (full moon to full moon), in opposition to the fleshly minded (the lawless ones) that dwell in the cycle of the darkness (dark moon to dark moon) without rest.  We always look His Light and dwell in His rest, for He is our Light to behold and the Master of Shabbat.

The cycle of His Light (Full Moon) and Rest (Shabbat) for His chosen ones to enter:
Isa. 66:23 And it shall be from Chodesh to Chodesh and from Shabbat to Shabbat, all mankind will come to bow down before Me, says YHWH. It speaks of two different cycles: from Chodesh to Chodesh [29-30 day intervals] and from Shabbat to Shabbat [7-day intervals], since the one or two-day Chodesh is not included in the "from Shabbat to Shabbat" cycle.
From Shabbat to Shabbat is the cycle of forwardness to begin and to end at the sunset (westwardness) so is the same cycle of forwardness from the Chodesh (full moon) to Chodesh.  The sunrise is the beginning of day (eastward) and the sunset (westward) is the end of day, so the rising of full mature moon is the beginning of month (night) at east, for the sun rules the day and the (full) moon rules the night.

The fleshly life is like between the waxing crescent moon and the waning crescent moon
and the spiritual birth is like to be sanctified at the full moon (purest and brightest of all):
What is like the waxing crescent moon to the waning crescent moon before it disappears?  It is the fleshly birth as the waxing crescent moon appears and it is the fleshly death at the dark moon when the waning crescent moon disappears!
When is the spiritual birth during the fleshly life?  It is at the turning point of acknowledging what is required to repent from the kingdom of darkness to the Kingdom of Light.  The full moon is the purest of all phases and is illuminated as the heart is sanctified from all the works of lawlessness after the repentance is made out of the kingdom of darkness! 
The law of lunar cycle begins with the full moon being seen, then the dark moon is unseen, and then the full moon is seen at the end.   It is like the seed seen to sow, then it is hid in the dirt (unseen) in the little while, but it grows to the full that brings back the seed production.  So the spiritual birth is the seed of His Light sown in the cultivated/repentant heart (ground) to grow full to the harvest time that is the spiritual production at the end of flesh that gives back to YHWH, our Father that is the sower and reaper of every seed of His Light in the repentant heart!
All the children of darkness are born from the dark womb to open to the world of light and also return to the dust (dark place) at their deaths.  All the children of Light are born of His Light and never taste the works of death nor see the works of darkness!
Acts 26:16-17 commands all of us to repent from the cycle of darkness (backwardness/lawlessness) [dark moon to dark moon] to His cycle of Light (forwardness) [full moon to full moon].  Heb 3:10-11 "for those who do not know His ways or go astray in their heart, shall not enter His rest.”; 3:18-19 18 And to whom did He swear that they would not enter His rest, but to those who were disobedient?  So we see that they were not able to enter because of unbelief."  4:1-11 "Therefore, let us fear if, while a promise remains of entering His rest, any one of you may seem to have come short of it.  For indeed we have had good news preached to us, just as they also; but the word they heard did not profit them, because it was not united by faith in those who heard....For the one who has entered His rest has himself also rested from his works, as Elohim did from His.  Therefore let us be diligent to enter that rest, so that no one will fall, through following the same example of disobedience."  John 8:12 "Then Yahushua again spoke to them, saying, 'I am the Light of the world; he who follows Me shall not walk in the darkness, but shall have the Light of life'."  Matt. 12:8 "For the Son of Man is Master of the Shabbat."  
To find His Light of Life first is to enter His eternal Rest.

Parts of Moon light to increase and to decrease monthly:
Enoch in his ancient days kept the Chodesh (full moon) and the lunar Shabbats and all the lineage of Adam till the Messiah followed His instruction of the lunar observation and so do we keep it today.
Book of Enoch 73:3 3. And her rising and setting changes every month: and her days are like the days of the sun, and when her light is uniform (i.e. full) it amounts to the seventh part of the light of the sun. 4. And thus she rises. And her first phase in the east comes forth on the thirtieth morning: and on that day she becomes visible, and constitutes for you the first phase of the moon on the thirtieth day together with the sun in the portal where the sun rises. 5. And the one half of her goes forth by a seventh part, and her whole circumference is empty, without light, with the exception of one-seventh part of it, (and) the fourteenth part of her light. 6. And when she receives one-seventh part of the half of her light, her light amounts to one-seventh part and the half thereof. 7. And she sets with the sun, and when the sun rises the moon rises with him and receives the half of one part of light, and in that night in the beginning of her morning [in the commencement of the lunar day] the moon sets with the sun, and is invisible that night with the fourteen parts and the half of one of them. 8. And she rises on that day with exactly a seventh part, and comes forth and recedes from the rising of the sun, and in her remaining days she becomes bright in the (remaining) thirteen parts.
v3. It speaks of the lunar cycle to reset the beginning of every lunar month.  The full moon is equal to the 1/7 of the sunlight.
v4. The full moon is visible on the 30th day (1st phase) to give its beginning of new moon on the next day (1st).  It is understood that there are some 30 day months and some 29 day months.  Both the sun and the moon can be seen in the opposition in the morning of 30th day together (sunrise before moonset), then in the night, the sun sets before the moon rises, giving us the new lunar month.  The whole circumference of full moon is visible and the bright surroundings of its circumference can be seen in the night.
v5. Then the next day decreases 1/14 part of light from the full moon and loses its whole circumference because of the decreasing/waning of that part of light.
v6. The explanation of the moon light parts is to increase or to decrease daily.  ½ of the 1/14 moonlight part is about 12 hours.
v7.  The moon has the last half of the one part of light (½ of 1/14) in which it is a waning crescent moon on the 14th day when the sun rises, then the night comes, the moon becomes invisible (dark) on the 15th when the sun sets.  The 14 ½ parts of light are disappeared when the moon becomes dark.
v8. The moon (waxing crescent) receives the beginning part of light received from the the rising of the sun on the 16th day. 
The 13 parts of lights are added to her remaining days in which the moon becomes bright (full) on the 29th day.
Book of Enoch 78:6. And when the moon rises one-fourteenth part appears in the heaven: on the fourteenth day she accomplishes her light. 7. And fifteen parts of light are transferred to her after [not till] the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished, according to the sign of the year, and she becomes fifteen parts, and the moon grows by (the addition of) fourteenth parts. 8. And in her waning (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second to thirteen parts of light, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, on the thirteenth to two, on the fourteenth to half of a seventh, and all her remaining light disappears wholly on the fifteenth (dark moon). 9. And in certain months the month has twenty-nine days and one twenty-eight (?). 10. And Uriel showed me another law: when light is transferred to the moon, and on which side it is transferred to her by the sun. 11. During all the period during which the moon is growing in her light, she is transferring it to herself when opposite to the sun during fourteen days [her light is accomplished in the heaven], and when she is illumined throughout, her light is accomplished in the heaven. 12. And on the first day she is called the new moon, for on that day the light rises upon her. 13. She becomes full moon exactly on the day when the sun sets in the west, and from the east she rises at night, and the moon shines the whole night through till the sun rises over against her and the moon is seen over against the sun. 14. On the side whence the light of the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all the light vanishes and all the days of the month are at an end, and her circumference is empty, void of light.
v6.  The moon rises on 14th day in which it has 1/14 part of light then it disappears on 15th day.
v7. 15 parts of light are to increase on the Moon after (not till) 15th day (dark Moon) since the 15th that is at the dark moon phase.
v8. The 14 parts of light are to decrease after 1st day; all her light parts disappear wholly on 15th day (dark moon).
v11. The opposition of the moon to the sun when coming to the full moon phase.
v12. The first day of a lunar month is called the new moon at the full moon phase.
v13. The full moon rises when (after) the sun sets and reigns all the night.
v14. The moon wanes till all the light disappears as all the days of waning moon come to the end of its light (dark moon).
Parts of Moonlight monthly to increase and to decrease
   Parts of Light Day      Phase   Parts of LightDay Phase
to decrease/wane     to increase/wax      
   14    1st       full/new moon Chodesh             1     16thwaxing cresent moon
   13   2nd     2     17th
   12   3th      3     18th
   11   4th      4     19th
   10   5th      5     20th
    9    6th      6     21th
   8    7th      7     22th3rd Shabbat
   7    8th      1st Shabbat          8     23th
    6    9th      9     24th
   5  10th    10    25th
    4  11th            11            26th
    3  12th     12    27th
   2  13th     13    28th
           1   14th      waning crescent moon               14    29th4th Shabbat
           0   15th      2nd Shabbat    (dark moon)        15    30th full moon Chodesh (1st phase)
    (30th day is included for the two day Chodesh when necessary)
See other article of Enoch's calendar: Full/New Moon Calendar

The cycle of darkness (from dark moon to full moon to dark moon) is NOT the work of renewal:
The cycle from darkness to light to the darkness is like from the beginning of the fleshly life (birth) to the increasing of its fleshly full life then to the decreasing to its death.  Why do the fleshly minded delight after the cycle of darkness?   The fleshly birth can be rejoiced to behold, but the fleshly death cannot be rejoiced to behold!
Therefore, the cycle of darkness cannot be renewed by itself, so it decreases your worthless values in your fleshly life!
The cycle of Light is to transfer from the cycle of darkness upon your repentance (point of reversal) so the spiritual one never tastes the cycle of darkness/death.  All the fleshly births are of the womanly cycle that dies itself because of sin!  We, the children of Light, are not in the cycle of darkness like of the womanly cycle, but are transferred to His cycle/Kingdom of Light!
We only behold His Light (Full Moon) and keep His Shabbats (sanctified from the Full Moon) always, nothing else! 
The cycle of Light is always renewed by increasing your good values in your spiritual life!

His fixed lunar order for man to follow the cycle of Chodesh (new month)
and the cycle of Shabbat:
Jer 31:35-36 Thus says YHWH, who gives the sun for light by day and the fixed order of the moon and the stars for light by night, who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar; YHWH of hosts is His name: If this fixed order departs from before Me, declares YHWH, then the offspring of Yisrael also will cease from being a nation before Me forever.  Amazingly, how forgetful many go astray from keeping His fixed order of moon, for the sake of keeping the Babylonian (Gregorian) calendar.  Remember that the tribes of Yisrael were carried to the 70-year Babylonian captivity and kept their solar calendar of named planets and legends.  Those, returned back to the land of Yisrael after that captivity, did work on the Shabbat days of its lunar cycle but were later corrected and restored back to His fixed order (Neh. 13:15-22).   A few keep His fixed order of  moon today but many go after the men's traditions of keeping what is fixed order of the sun.   The Shabbat is easy to follow within a lunar cycle beginning with its Chodesh (full moon), but it cannot follow within a solar cycle.  It is understood that the sun is for the daylight, the stars is for the night light, and the moon is for the fixed order of lunar cycle that gives us the Chodesh and its Shabbats, and even its festival seasons within.  The reason is why many are scattered in this world as the lost tribes of Yisrael that need to restore back to His fixed order and to make us a bond of His Nation of Yisrael!

Before the sin was invaded in man:
The sun was to govern the whole day daily and the moon (full) was to govern the whole night every night because the lights were divided. (Gen 1:14-16)
The man is to govern over all the creatures giving their names.
The woman is free from blood flow (menustration).
The Shabbat is made for them because Elohim made all the things for them.
The foods were freely given to them out of the trees in the Garden of Eden.
The Garden of Eden was watered from the rivers.
Note: both the full moon and Shabbat were there before the sin fell on man.

After the sin was invaded in man:
The sun does still govern the whole day daily, but the moon loses her power in governing the whole night nightly therefore she falls back [bleeds her lights] and goes around the earth monthly, so the full moon needs to be restored in order to bring back the days of Shabbat on the 8th day, 15th day, 22nd day, and 29th day of its lunar month and  and it does repeat monthly.
The man lost his power in governing all the creatures as the serpent (hasatan) is the master of this world.
The woman is bruised to have her monthly menustration.
The Shabbat was lost because of sin so they need 6-day labor to restore back to the Shabbat day sanctified on the 8th day, 15th day, 22nd day, and 29th day of lunar month, then again in the new lunar cycle and so on.
They had labor for foods and housing and clothing needs like we do today.
They were put out of the Garden of Eden.
Many have tried to prove the 7th day of Gregorian dates back to the week of the Creation, although each Chodesh (full moon) has to be the head start as He divided the lights at the beginning so it can sanctify the four Shabbats within its lunar month. 

Examples of days of Chodesh (new month) and days of Shabbat in the Hebrew Scriptures:
2 King 4:23 He said, Why will you go to him today? It is neither Chodesh nor Shabbat. And she said, It will be well.  1 Chr. 23:31 and to offer all burnt offerings to YHWH, on the Shabbats, the Chodeshim and the fixed festivals in the number set by the ordinance concerning them, continually before YHWH.  2 Chr. 1:4 Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of YHWH my El, dedicating it to Him, to burn fragrant incense before Him and to set out the showbread continually, and to offer burnt offerings morning and evening, on Shabbats and on Chodeshim and on the appointed feasts of YHWH our El, this being required forever in Yisrael.  2 Chr. 8:13 and did so according to the daily rule, offering them up according to the commandment of Moshe, for the Shabbats, the Chodeshim and the three annual feasts: the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks and the Feast of Booths.  Isa. 66:23 And it shall be from Chodesh to Chodesh and from Shabbat to Shabbat, all mankind will come to bow down before Me, says YHWH.  Eze. 46:1 Thus says YHWH Elohim, The gate of the inner court facing east shall be shut the six working days; but it shall be opened on the Shabbat day and opened on the day of the Chodesh.  46:3 The people of the land shall also worship at the doorway of that gate before YHWH on the Shabbats and on the Chodeshim.  Amos 8:5 saying, When will the Chodesh be over, So that we may sell grain, And the Shabbat, that we may open the wheat market...

Four lunar Shabbats monthly:
4 Shabbats (4 lunar quarters) only come within its lunar montly cycle (not solar cycle) when the Chodesh (Moon) is full (without a blemish) to sanctify the Shabbat days (Check P42 Mitzvah notes on the Chodesh):
When the 8th day is purified for the womanly period, she becomes clean so it is likewise with the 1st quarter or 1st phase of Chodesh is sanctified as the Shabbat at its 8th day.  These Shabbat days are often mentioned as 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th in the Torah books and other Bible books.  The announcement of the beginning of  Chodesh (Full Moon) and its Shabbat is noteworthy in Amos 8:5 asking when the celebration of the Chodesh is come in order to know when its Shabbat comes?  Normally the Levites blows the horns announcing when the 1st day begins then it is determined when is the 1st Shabbat of its month started, when the ripen Full moon arisen at the east when the sun is at sunset (west).  It speaks in the chapters 73 and 78 of Book of Enoch. 
Isa. 66:23 And it shall be from Chodesh to Chodesh and from Shabbat to Shabbat, all mankind will come to bow down before Me, says YHWH. It speaks of two different cycles: from Chodesh to Chodesh [29-30 day intervals] and from Shabbat to Shabbat [7-day intervals], since the one or two-day Chodesh is not included in the "from Shabbat to Shabbat" cycle.   The two questions commonly asked in ancient times in Amos 8:5 are to know when the Chodesh is over and when the Shabbat is over.
Psalm 81:3 speaks of the blowing announcement of the Chodesh before knowing when the Shabbat days of the lunar month are.

The word “Shabbat” in Hebrew means rest for all of us to seek the place to rest from the works of restlessness to rest our fleshly lives that cannot endure without rest otherwise they shall die in the works of restlessness.  Let us have a rest (Shabbat) day weekly so that our fleshly lives can get freshness and strength preserved in its cycle of fleshly life.  Every creature has to seek the break from the labor to rest and to give its flesh more strength to restore back in the cycle weekly.  Nearly, each one has his daily routine of work, rest/play, and sleep equally in three 8-hour measurements.

Burnt offering of Shabbat:
The burnt offering (continual consummation in fire) is within the unending cycle of the Shabbat (rest) from all the works of lawlessness (restlessness) for the Spirit filled dwells in His Kingdom of Shabbat (rest) in the consummation of burnt offering surrounding it to separate the works of holiness from all the works of lawlessness.

Study His Torah during the Shabbats:
Study His Torah (Law of Moshe) and prophets, psalms during the Shabbats (Acts 13:14,27; 15:21; 18:4).  The Law separates those who abide in freedom (rest) from those who abide in ignorance (no rest). Abiding in YHWH's rest is where there is patience, love and joy while impatience, hatred, and miserableness cannot find to rest forever.

The first Shabbat mentioned:
Gen. 2:1-3 speaks of the sanctification of His Shabbat, after His completion of work.  On the first day Elohim separated the Light from the darkness.  The full moon was to govern the night (Gen. 1:16).  It is understood that Elohim separates His children of Light from the children of darkness at the beginning and purifies the hearts of His children until the day of Shabbat (the Kingdom of Light/rest).  Matt 11:28-30 “Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest (shabbat) shall find rest unto your souls.  For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.
The children of Yisrael were separated from the children of Egypt thru the washing of Passover lamb and the baptism of Red Sea (Holy Spirit) then the work of purification in the wilderness until the day of Promised Land.  The pillar of fire at the night is illuminated as the full moon (Yahushua) shines on you.

The Shabbats restored:
See Nehemiah 13: 15-22 speaking of the Shabbat restored when the Jews returned from the Babylonian captivity where they were observing the solar/Babylonian calendar which have the 12 headless months named after the legends of Babylian/Roman empire.  Upon returning from the captivity, the Jews found themselves violating the Shabbat day because of their different calendar observed in Babylon using the day of Saturn as their 7th day. No one can make or prove the sanctified Shabbat as the day of Saturn or 7th day thru the originial Babylonian (solar) calendar.

Lunar calendar (wholly recorded in whole Scriptures)
vs. Solar calendar (none recorded):
The whole Scriptures only speaks of the lunar calendar wholly which YHWH creates for us to observe.  The lunar calendar is perfect (unblemish) for us to follow YHWH’s Chodeshim (Full/New Moon), Shabbats and festivals such as Pesach, Shavuot, Sukkot.  For the Shabbats, they rely only on the Full/New Moons which are 1st days of all the lunar months, where the Shabbats fall on 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th days of all the lunar months.  For the solar calendar, it is imperfect (blemish) for us to follow since it is a man-made calendar which had a history of errorly time changes on the different number of days in a year and all the headless months are the work of imbalance from days 28 to 31.  We cannot take the holy days out of the lunar calendar and put them on the solar calendar which does not agree fully, like we cannot put the Shabbat day on the 7th day (Saturday) of the Gregorian calendar.  Many have tried to put both weekly (solar) Shabbat and lunar Shabbat together after the Passover till His resurrection, but we cannot serve the two masters, YHWH for His solar calendar, one for the man-made calendar.  There is no recorded solar calendar at all in the whole scriptures. 
The Romans had its 8-day week before its calendar was established in A.D. 321 in Constantine's powers. 
What the world calls 'week': A history of varied days a week 

The Gregorian/solar calendar (unscriptural):
Let us see what the lunar calenar, which is made by YHWH, does in the whole Scriptures while the solar/Babylonian/Gregorian is made by the hands of men and is not recorded in the whole Scriptures.  The study of the lunar month is similar to the cycle of the womanly period month.   At the beginning, Chauwah/ Eve was clean, full of life before the commandment of life is violated, then according to Gen. 3:16, she first experienced the bleeding of blood/loss of life to her first cycle of womanly period to purify the uncleanness in 7 days to become clean on the 8th day according to the law of Moshe.  It is similar to the full moon which is first mentioned in Gen. 1:14 to govern all the night, but because of the cursings made wholly visible, the moon lost her power equally with the sun in the cycle of orbit and starts bleeding her full light just like the womanly blood bleeds, the first lunar calendar is made with the Full Moon/Chodesh for the first day of the month.

Shabbat made for man:
Matt 12:5-8 “...the priests in the temple profane the Shabbat...That in the place is one greater than the temple...The Son of man is Adon (Master) even of the Shabbat day.”; Mk 2:27 “The Shabbat was made for man, and not man for the Shabbat: Therefore the Son of man is Adon also of the Shabbat.”; He. 4:4
The fleshly temple (heart of uncircumcision) cannot abide in the eternal rest (shabbat) of our Heavenly Father.  Heb. 4:1-6 “...For we which have believed do enter into rest (shabbat) was first preached entered not in because of unbelief.” 
Only the spiritual temple (heart of circumcision) can enter into the Kingdom of Shabbat while the uncircumcised abides in the kingdom of unrest.
Matt 11:28-30 “Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest (shabbat).  Take my yoke upon you and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.  For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”  Learn of me (I am the Word): Gal. 5:14 “For the whole law is fulfilled in one Word (Yahushua)...”

The Shabbats determined within the lunar month:
Isa. 66:23 “23 And it shall be from new/full moon to new/full moon And from Shabbat to Shabbat, all mankind will come to bow down before Me, says YHWH.”; Amos 9:5-6 “ saying, When will the new/full moon be over, so that we may sell grain, and the Shabbat, that we may open the wheat market, to make the bushel smaller and the shekel bigger, And to cheat with dishonest scales, so as to buy the helpless for money and the needy for a pair of sandals, and that we may sell the refuse of the wheat?"
Only the Shabbats are determined after the Full/New Moon which is 1st day of the lunar month announced thru the Levitical priests whereas the 4 Shabbats fall on 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th which are commonly written in the Bible.  No man can put the Shabbat on the 7th day of the Gregorian/Babylonian or other man-made week or His festivals on their man-made calendars, other than His lunar calendar sanctified to observe the Shabbats and days of feasts.
Also there is more information found in the books:
Babylonian menologies and the Semitic calendars, by S. Langdon,
Oxford University Press, London 1935, pages 73, 83-96
Time and the calendars, by W. M. O’Neil
Sydney University Press 1975, pages 6, 35-37
The Religion of Babylonians, by Rev. A. H. Sayce, pages 272, 476-477
The Early History of Hebrew, by Rev. A.H. Sayce, pages 193, 208

Shabbat(s) in New Testament:
All are Greek #4521 except for Mark 15:42 (#4315) are found in the Greek NT.
* indicates the “one of the Shabbats” instead of first (day) of week used in NAS, KJV.
Shabbatoi (Shabbat) - Matt 12:1, 12; Mark 2:23; 3:2; Luke 4:31; 6:2; 13:10
Shabbatw (Shabbat) - Matt. 12:3; 24:20; Luke 6:1, 6, 7; 13:14, 15; 14:1, 3; John 5:16; 7:22, 23 (2); 19:31; Acts 13:44
Shabbatoin (Shabbats) - Matt. 12:5, 11; Mark 1:21; 2:25; 3:4; Luke 6:9
Shabbaton (Shabbats) - Matt 12:5; Mark 2:27 (2); Luke 23:54, 56; John 5:18; 9:14, 16; Acts 13:27, 42; 15:21; 18:4
Shabbatou (Shabbat) - Matt 12:8; Mark 2:28; 6:2; 16:1,9*; Luke 6:5; 13:14, 16; 14:5; 18:12*; John 5:9, 10; 19:31; Acts 1:12
miay ton Shabbatwn (first of the Shabbats) - Matt 28: 1, 1*; Mark 16:2*; Luke 4:16; 24:1*; Jn. 20:1*; 20:19*; Acts 13:14; 16:13; 20:7*;
1 Cor 16:2*; Col. 2:16
Shabbata (shabbats) - Acts 17:2
proShabbaton (the [day] before Shabbat [evening]) - Mark 15:42

*Matt. 28:1 (NAS) “Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first (day) of the week, ....”
In Greek translation: Matt. 28:1 “And on the eve of the Shabbats, as it was dawning toward the first of the Shabbats, .....” The first of the Shabbat means the beginning of the count of the next 7 Shabbats.  Also it is the day of Wave Sheaf (16th) which is before the count of the next 7 Shabbats to the day of Shavuot.  They are in the texts of Young's literal and Green's literal.
No word “week” in Greek is found anywhere in the Greek N.T.   All the words of “Shabbat...” are only found in the Greek N.T. It shows that the Shabbat is a highest honorable and hallowed day of all for those who believe in His word abide in His eternal rest.  Those who honor the man-made days more than the Shabbat holy day are not worth to enter into the Kingdom of Holiness for He is the Master of Shabbat. 
There are two Sabbatown words in Matt. 28:1, but there is one Sabbatown word in Mark 16:2, Luke 24:1; John 20:1, 20:19; Corinthians 16:2. The Day of Wave Sheaf or of First-fruits (Yahushua’s resurrection - Dan. 9:26 the Messiah [the first sheaf] cut), which is after the Shabbat ended, is the beginning of the count of 7 Shabbats as the commandment comes from Leviticus 23:9-14 (NAS), to the fiftieth day (Shavuot or Pentecost).  We see there are other verses telling the beginning of the count and its end: From Matt. 28:1, Mark 16:2, Luke 24:1, John 20:1, 20:19, to Acts 2:1; from Acts 20:7 to 20:16; from 1 Corinthians 16:2 to 16:8.  There is no “week” word written in the whole New Covenant.

Shabbat made for man, not man for Shabbat:
The Shabbat is made for man, in which the Shabbats come in the lunar monthly cycle, not man for Shabbat (man chosen the Shabbat day out of other calendars.  The four seasons are like the four Shabbats within its lunar month, which are on 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th (autumn, winter, spring, and summer).  There are some two-day Full/New Moon observations (1 Sam. 20:5-27) to keep the lunar Shabbat days on the same numbered days every lunar month like there is 2nd Adar when needed to keep the feasts of YHWH in their appointed times.  Many use today’s appointed feasts and New moon days based on the lunar calendar but use the Shabbats based on the solar (Gregorian) calendar.  We cannot serve two masters which are of the lunar calendar YHWH made for us and of the solar man-made calendar.  The Gentiles (unbelievers) hibernate in the winter season because of their lawless deeds, and the repentants (born again) are awakened in the spring season.

613 Mitzvot
Moadim Index

The Aleph and Tau Messianic comings
are for all mortals to repent and to fulfill